THE S10 OUTPOST IS A MILITARY SHELTER
The S10x40 is available only as a military model (S10x40-MIL) supplied with a 6.5KW internal EMP-shielded diesel generator. We do not make a civilian S10x40 bomb shelter with solar power.
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost bomb shelter is an efficient shape for people to operate in. The space for humans inside is more than 98% useful. The floor is 10 ft. wide and the ceiling is 8 ft. high. The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost is a fifth generation disaster shelter manufactured to standards of PRINCIPLES of PROTECTION, U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Standards, Sixth Edition, 2013, Brown Books, which is the United State’s bible on shelter engineering standards. It is known in the industry as P.O.P. The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost was designed using CAD (computer aided drafting), CAE (computer aided engineering), and FEAM (3-dimensional finite element analysis and modeling). A shelterist in the S10 Outpost under heavy, direct effects from two 1-MT nuclear weapons, has at least the same probability of survival (99.7%) as a person living and working in peacetime. The structural shape of the S10 Outpost allows it to be a true pressure vessel for resistance to high external pressure. The S10 Outpost shelter system is based on 30+ years field experience with Walton McCarthy’s successful P10, RC8 and CAT 25, and H10 Commander and H12 Admiral underground shelters.
The 4,300 ft3 shelter hull is made of structural steel. The entranceway is connected to the shelter hull through a seismic joint. The shelter is designed for 10 psi (pounds per square inch) external pressure resistance above the static earth load, without relying on earth arching. The floor is also smooth so it can be decontaminated since carpet is not allowed in an NBC shelter. All of these facilities function without outside electricity through the use of an internal EMP shielded diesel generator charging a battery bank. The inside surface of the shelter hull is easily cleaned with common detergents and there is ample volume for food storage in the walls.
CORROSION PROTECTION SYSTEM
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost hull is both coated with dielectric epoxy over its entire hull and is connected to sacrificial anodes for superior corrosion resistance. The inside epoxy white coating has excellent flame and smoke properties. The exterior epoxy coating has strong dielectric properties and excellent cathodic bonding and abrasion resistance properties. Underground corrosion is an electrical process and the shelter hull corrosion is virtually stopped by the Cathodic Protection System. A typical galvanized culvert or tank hull erodes over time requiring the shelter hull pressure rating to be de-rated 2-5% each year. With the NORAD S10 Outpost cathodic corrosion protection system, the underground anodes connected to the bottom of the shelter are much more electrically conductive than the shelter hull so the anodes electrically erode instead of the shelter hull. The corrosion protection system is monitored by a meter mounted on the shelter inside wall indicating that the corrosion protection system is operating and when the anodes needs to be replaced. The corrosion protection system allows support of a 30-50 year structural warranty.
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost contains 4,300 ft3 and 387 ft2 floor space with 8 ft. of headroom and 8 ft. high wall space. This allows relatively normal living and a very spacious feeling. There is ample light for reading anywhere in the shelter supplied by LED white lights. Fresh filtered air is brought into the shelter by a 12-volt air blower designed to operate 24 hours per day and supplies many times the breathing volume of air required by adults. This system has the advantage of maintaining constant shelter temperature, constant shelter oxygen levels, constant shelter carbon dioxide levels, and constant shelter moisture levels, plus it prevents overheating which is common with manual air blowers in warm climates. In addition, this electric blower air supply system works with all people including young children, people who are sick, people who are injured, people who are handicapped, and people who are elderly who may not be able to operate a manual blower system during a disaster. Exhausting of hot, moist, spent air is facilitated through the air ceiling exhaust to the air manifold at ground level. This is an efficient method of exhausting spent air, especially when resisting intruder assaults is a critical factor of the shelter design.
ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE -EMP
NORAD shelters are designed to meet MIL-STD-188-125A:” High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Protection for Ground-Based C4I Facilities Performing Critical, Time-Urgent Missions Part 1: Fixed Facilities” 17 July 1998. All mission essential equipment (MEE) vulnerable to EMP is mounted in a tested aluminum EMP shielded enclosure. All NORAD shelters are self-contained and not connected to the electrical grid. The only MEE equipment in the S10 Outpost shelter that are vulnerable to EMP are the inverter/charger, generator, and generator/battery bank controls, which are all mounted in an aluminum EMP shielded enclosure. The EMP shielded enclosures meet QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727, and shielding minimums of MIL-188-125. The shelter system also includes a 2 ft3 EMP vault to store other electronic components such as laptops, radios, TV’s, CD player etc.
The golden rule for EMP protection in underground shelters is: “DO NOT USE THE SHELTER HULL AS AN EMP SHIELD AND DO NOT USE THE EMP SHIELD AS A SHELTER.” The major problem in making underground shelters EMP safe, is dealing with all the POEs or “points of entry’ in underground shelter hulls that allow EMP to enter the shelter. Anything penetrating the hull such as entranceways, emergency escape tunnels, air inlet hoses, air outlet hoses, water hoses, electrical lines, and radio cables, etc., all need EMP shielded gaskets and/or EMP shielded air vents. Steel cannot usually be used as a Faraday Cage because it is not conductive enough. Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens/meter (õ S/m). The minimum conductivity for a Faraday Cage to shield an EMP is 15,000,000 Siemens per meter. Steel has a conductivity of only 7,000,000 S/m so it is not conductive enough to effectively attenuate all EMP frequencies. Aluminum has a conductivity of 35,000,000 S/m and copper 60,000,000 S/m so both materials are very well suited for a Faraday Cage to effectively shield EMP. Bad welds, corroded welds, etc. in the shelter hull are all POEs making equipment in the shelter vulnerable to EMP. The NORAD approach to making an underground shelter EMP shielded, and a well accepted military practice, is to assume the shelter hull is EMP transparent and shield each individual unit vulnerable to EMP. The POEs in a shielded enclosure for a few cables are small and can be easily shielded. Also, unlike underground shelters, EMP shielded enclosures can be tested individually. Underground shelters with certified EMP shielded enclosures for MEE (Minimum Essential Equipment) meet the MIL-188-125A Standard. All of the NORAD shelter models, have been reviewed for an EMP Protection Analysis by a Certified Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineer and a Certified Electrostatic Discharge Control Engineer and found to comply with MIL-STD-188-125A with shielded enclosures for MEE.
DIESEL GENERATOR POWER
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost bomb shelter is supplied with an internal 6.5 KW diesel generator located in a sealed and pressurized room connected to a 400 gallon aluminum diesel tank. The tank is serviced by a circulating pump, filter and fill port to accept fuel, emulsifiers, and fungicides. The generator is housed in an aluminum/nickel EMP shielded enclosure meeting QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727 and MIL-188-125 EMP shielding and is an isolated enclosure. The generator enclosure is vented through the shelter ceiling. The generator room is a separate room pressurized with NBC filtered air. This generator’s power can also be used to power another structure such as a nearby house. Shelter durations shown below are based on 16 to 24 hours/day operation of the TV, DVD player, computer, radios etc. The S10-MIL has three circuit breaker panels: One for the 12 volt DC system, one for the inverter AC, and one for the generator AC.
Inverters convert DC power of the battery bank to 120 VAC power or house current. The inverter/charger is located inside an aluminum/nickel EMP shielded enclosure meeting QQ-A-200/8, MIL-C-7438, MIL-T-10727 and MIL-188-125 shielding.
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost shelter is connected to a 1000 gallon septic tank (supplied) with a leach chamber system size based on the installation site percolation test. The septic system has an indefinite duration just like that of one found in a conventional house.
S.E.A.M NBC AIR FILTRATION
The NORAD S10 Outpost has two modern air filtration systems called SEAM units. (Severe Environment Air Module). One SEAM unit is dedicated to the supplying cooling and combustion air to the generator and one SEAM unit is dedicated to the breathing air for life support. Each SEAM unit can be supplied as a dust filter only version or full NBC air filtration version.
The dust filter removes dust particles to keep the shelter clean. This version is normally used for the storm shelter models which do not require NBCE protection. For this version, the filter elements can come into direct contact with human skin since the only contaminant is physical dust particles.
The Nuclear-Biological-Chemical or NBC version S.E.A.M. is a “Bag-In/Bag Out” (BIBO) NBC air filtration system designed for long-term operation in severe NBC environments. The NBC filter housing is made of stainless steel. The generator SEAM supplies NBC filtered air directly to the generator room when the generator is operating. This system allows maintenance on a generator that is free of NBC contamination since its combustion and cooling air is NBC filtered air which is a military requirement. In order to qualify as a long-term NBC air filtration system for more than 30 days, the HEPA and carbon trays have to be able to be removed and replaced. The trays are replaced using a “bag in bag out” system so there is no human contact with the contaminated filter elements. On the front side of the filter housing is a vacuum dial gage which indicates when the filter is operating normally and when the filters need to be changed. In the case where the shelter is located near a nuclear air, ground, or surface burst detonation putting fallout into the atmosphere, any HEPA filter in any air filtration system located in the shelter will become too radioactive and dangerous to the shelterists to keep in the filter housing even though the vacuum gage may read normal. The level of radioactivity in the filter comes from radioactive contaminants in the HEPA filter tray which can be measured by a radiation meter by just standing in front of the access doors and holding the radiation meter at the center of the access cover. When the reading is above 1 rad/hr., the HEPA filter should be changed.
Almost all of the initial fallout will have fallen in the first 24 hours so changing the HEPA filters should automatically be implemented after this period. Specific procedures are found in the S10 Outpost OPERATOR MANUAL for replacing filter elements. The SEAM system for life support is located at the far end of the shelter and supplies 40-200 cfm of fresh NBC filtered air and operates 24 hours per day. The air filtration system consists of three stages of air filtration. The first stage is a HEPA filter to remove physical particles that are 0.3 microns and larger at 99.999% efficiency. The second filter tray is activated carbon to remove radioactive iodine gas and has a minimum residence time of .25 seconds. The third filter tray is TEDA carbon to remove chemical warfare agents with a minimum residence time of 0.25 seconds. Each carbon tray weighs approximately 35 lbs. and any of the trays can be changed by one person in approximately ten minutes. For extended Sealed Shelter Atmosphere durations, a Lithium Hydroxide carbon scrubber tray can be used. One Lithium Hydroxide tray will remove enough carbon dioxide for ten people to stay in the shelter for approximately 24 hours. The top of the NBC filter housing has a gas agent test port to test for chemical agents using the supplied Chemical Agent Test Kit. A radiation survey meter is also supplied.
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost has 320 lineal feet of shelving that is 11 inches wide and 18 inches high. More than 200 five gallon buckets can be stored on the shelves plus toilet paper, clothing, tools, and other items. A key feature of the S10 Outpost is that it has enough floor space and efficient wall geometry to allow equipment, such as shelving and furniture, to be placed against the wall near the edge of the floor.
Air enters and exits the shelter through the air manifold assembly. The spent breathing air containing carbon dioxide, heat, moisture, and odors exits the shelter at the ceiling of the shelter at the opposite end to the SEAM air filtration system and exits to the atmosphere at ground level through the screened openings in the air manifold steel dome. Air enters the shelter through a separate air manifold assembly. The pipe flange at the bottom of the air manifold assembly is connected to a seismic joint which connects to the shelter hull.
ENTRANCEWAY SEISMIC JOINT
The connection between the entranceway and the hull is made through a double axis seismic joint. This allows the entranceway to move independently without overstressing the hull end wall. The entranceway can be located within the frost line, while the shelter is well below the frost line. This creates tremendous stresses during winter months when the entranceway is forced up 0.5 – 1.25 inches due to frozen ground. The seismic joint removes these stresses by allowing vertical and lateral movement of the entranceway to maintain structural integrity during rolling ground motion from severe ground shock.
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost is designed to accept water from dedicated water well powered by the shelter power system, not powered on the local power grid, to prevent water pump damage from a HEMP weapon. A backup water pump can be kept in the shelter in the EMP vault. There are also optional 2500 gallon underground water tanks which supplies a six month duration for 6 people.
The standard entranceway is a 68 deg. 36 inch diameter entranceway with a 30 in diameter clear opening, is usually used for emergency escape and is connected to the shelter though a seismic joint. The 30 inch diameter clear opening manhole allows large people to enter the shelter quickly. The hatch cover is spring loaded to open and requires approximately 10 lbs. of force to pull closed. The hatch can withstand 350 mph winds and has no surfaces exposed to projectiles.
The hatch is made of structural steel and can withstand a fire reaching 1700oF for one hour while maintaining its structural integrity in compliance to ASTM E119. Although the hatch is not impenetrable, it is specifically designed to resist seven basic assaults from people trying to break into the shelter in compliance to P.O.P.
WALK IN ENTRANCEWAY 45 DEG.
The main entranceway is through a 72 inch diameter tunnel at a 45 degree angle connected to the shelter through a seismic joint. The flush steel hatch at ground level is aerodynamically smooth with a clear opening of 30 inches x 60 inches. There is nothing for flying debris to hit and the hatch can withstand 350 mph winds and is designed to protect the shelter from a fire reaching 1700oF for one hour while maintaining its structural integrity in compliance to ASTM E119.
HATCH EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR LOCK
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost hatch opens from the outside with a special mechanical key that cannot be made from a locksmith. When the shelter is unoccupied, a mechanical hasp and padlock is used. When the shelter is entered, the hasp and padlock are taken into the shelter. When inside the shelter, the hatch can be closed by turning a dog lever and inserting a locking pin. The hatch cover is designed to resist 5 psi negative pressure (5,000 lbs.) of uplifting force caused by the negative pressure of a tornado or explosion and 40 psi (20,000 lbs.) of overpressure. The average time it takes for untrained or inexperienced people to enter the shelter is approximately 5-10 seconds per person.
SEALED SHELTER ATMOSPHERE
When ground fires are present around the hatch, the air blower should not be turned on to bring in fresh air. During this time, the shelterists must breathe in a sealed shelter atmosphere. The safe duration time is based on a 3% carbon dioxide limit. The time it takes for the shelter atmosphere to reach this limit is a function of the number of shelterists, degree of physical activity of the shelterists, and the volume of the shelter above the floor. Sealed Shelter Atmosphere graphs are provided for each specific shelter.
INTERNAL PRESSURE CONTROL
The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost uses 8 inch diameter stainless steel blast valves to prevent blast overpressure or underpressure from pressurizing the shelter injuring people. The valves are located inside the shelter where they can be easily serviced. These valves are normally open and close from blast overpressure or negative pressure maintaining the normal shelter atmosphere. The air inlet and outlet openings are also sized to allow overpressure choking as a redundant system. Blast valves are located inside the shelter directly above the SEAM air filtration unit and on the air outlet on the ceiling.
Water Filter-The shelter can be equipped with a sub-micron water filter for all water used at the sink, shower, and toilet. Two of the batteries will supply enough power to pump approximately 1000 gallons of filtered water from the tank or water well. The counter contains a large stainless steel utility sink where dishes, clothes, and pets are washed. The sink, shower, and toilet, drain into a sewage lift station which transfers sewage up to a high pressure septic system. The toilet room has a blower to keep the toilet room in negative pressure venting all odors to the ground surface. Fittings– The shelter entranceway contains NPTF thru-hull couplings below ground level, for plumbing and electrical connection to the water tank or well and bringing in antenna lines or a phone line. Toilet– The toilet used is a conventional flush toilet draining into the sewage lift station under the shelter floor. The sewage is pumped up to the septic tank through an internal and external hose. Shower– The fiberglass shower floor allows all water from the shower head to drain into the sewage lift station. NBC decontamination is performed in this shower using the supplied decontamination solution and spray bottle. Cooking –The NORAD S10M uses an electric double burner cooking stove located on the kitchen counter. The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost civilian uses an alcohol cooking stove.
The protection factor (PF) of a shelter is the ratio of a radiation dose over smooth ground which would be received by an unprotected person, compared to the dose that would be received by a person in a sheltered location. For example, a PF of 40 means that a person would receive l/40th the radiation in a shelter compared to the radiation that he would receive unprotected. A PF of l00 = l/100th. This is the fraction of radiation that a shelterist would receive from overhead (not accounting for radiation entered through the entranceway). The PF alone should never be used to determine the radiation entering a blast shelter. The Half Value Layer Thickness (HVL) is the material thickness required to reduce the radiation dose to half. Earth has an HVL of 5.5 inches and concrete has an HVL of 4.7 inches will reduce the radiation dose to half.
Radiation shielding from overhead in the Norad Shelter S10 Outpost is provided by 96 inches of earth at the crown of the shelter ceiling. With a TRS (Total Rems in Shelter at the shelter entrance) of 3 rems at 20 psi (0.6 miles from GZ of a 100 KT weapon), the shelterist would be safe. This 30 day dose is based on a 100 KT surface burst to maximize radiation fallout. (See of PRINCIPLES of PROTECTION, U.S. Handbook of NBC Weapon Fundamentals and Shelter Engineering Standards, Sixth Edition, 737 pp, 2013). A shelters’s radiation dose must always be related to the shelter’s overpressure rating.
Based on the worst cancer cases (leukemia) from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki victims, a 10-rem dose may increase the cancer rates from the current rate of 352/100,000 up to 355/100,000. It should be kept in mind that the Hiroshima victims were totally unprepared and uneducated. They were malnourished and already suffering from many diseases during a critical wartime period where food, medical supplies, and other necessities were in short supply. In addition, they were not only exposed to heavy, acute external radiation doses but also internal radiation doses from eating contaminated food and inhaling radioactive fallout. Educated shelterists can avoid such damaging effects and can determine the radiation levels with a simple radiation survey meter supplied with the Norad Shelter S10 Outpost along with a chemical agent detection kit.
In the event that heavy debris falls on the hatch cover and the radios are not able to bring help to clear the hatch, emergency escape procedures can be implemented. The Norad Shelter S10 Outpost uses a manually operated mechanical jack to force the hatch open. The 18 inch long handle will require 50 lbs. downward force to generate 8,000 pounds of uplifting force.